I Crampi e l’Apnea: come Evitarli e Imparare a Gestirli

I Crampi e l’Apnea: come Evitarli e Imparare a Gestirli

I Crampi e l’Apnea: come Evitarli e Imparare a Gestirli

Come in tutti gli sport in cui l’impegno muscolare è importante, anche nell’apnea può verificarsi la comparsa di quelle dolorose e persistenti contrazioni involontarie dei muscoli chiamate “crampi”. Le cause dell’insorgenza di questo problema nel subacqueo sono nella maggior parte dei casi lo scarso allenamento, o comunque un impegno richiesto nettamente superiore al grado di preparazione fisica raggiunto; più raramente ma non di rado l’eccessiva perdita di sali minerali (potassio in particolare) e l’uso di attrezzature poco adeguate.

Aldilà dello stato generale di forma in cui ci si trova, esiste anche un fattore di predisposizione soggettivaall’insorgenza dei crampi, ed ecco perchè coloro cui è capitato di soffrirne in più di qualche episodio, dovrebbero curare con particolare scrupolo la reidratazione durante le permanenze in mare più lunghe. Nei mesi invernali non bisogna neppure trascurare il fattore freddo che ha un ruolo tutt’altro che trascurabile nella comparsa di questa sintomatologia dolorosa.

Poichè non si presenteranno solo con mare calmo, quando saremo a galla o quando avremo nella nostra disponibilità un comodo mezzo nautico, cerchiamo anche di capire come comportarci nel tentativo di gestire, per quanto possibile, il problema. La prima cosa da fare, almeno in teoria, sarebbe quella di interrompere qualsiasi attività fisica, il che chiaramente non ci sarà possibile se saremmo intenti in un rietro a terra pinneggiando controcorrente oppure se staremo risalendo da un tuffo impegnativo. La prima cosa veramente utile da fare è quella di cercare di mantenere un buon autocontrollo e raggiungere la superficie, anche liberandosi della cintura e del fucile se fosse necessario. Una volta a galla dovremo cercare di decontrarre la parte dolorante, che nel subacqueo sono di solito i polpacci o l’arco plantare, molto più raramente i muscoli femorali. Per ottenere il risultato potrà essere di grande aiuto fare un pò di stretching improvvisato distendendo le gambe e afferrando la punta delle nostre pinne e tirandola verso di noi fino a sentire un po’ di sollievo. Anche massaggiare con delicatezza la parte può aiutare la decontrazione e farci superare l’inconveniente.

Se possibile poi, cerchiamo di capire il perchè del crampo e di evitarlo. Ad esempio i crampi nella zona dell’arco plantare sono spesso dovuti all’abitudine sbagliata di “chiudere” il piede durante la pinneggiata, perchè la scarpetta risulta cedevole sotto l’azione della pala.

Nell’immediato, cercare di avere una pinneggiata meno potente, magari effettuando un maggior numero di falcate ma di minore ampiezza, potrebbe permetterci di raggiungere incolumi la spiaggia, ricordandoci però per il futuro di usare pale più morbide o scarpette più rigide. Ovviamente diverso sarà il discorso per i polpacci che non potremmo non sollecitare, a meno di poter risalire sul mezzo nautico, tuttavia appoggiarci con il busto sulla plancetta o la boa a siluro, contribuirà a rendere la nuotata meno faticosa. Allo stesso modo, soprattutto quando i crampi non sono un fatto isolato, potrebbe essere utile cercare di far riposare un pò la parte dolente, per cui potrebbe bastare anche solo variare la posizione di nuoto disponendosi sul dorso e con il busto leggermente sollevato a tenere la testa fuori dall’acqua.

Un breve cenno meritano i crampi da scarsa circolazione, quelli che si verificano in inverno quando decidiamo di usare dei calzari più spessi ma sulle stesse scarpette che usiamo il resto dell’anno. Ci vorrà molto poco per iniziare a soffrire di dolori veramente lancinanti e non ci saranno massaggi o stretching a salvarci: dovremo per forza o toglierci le pinne per qualche minuto di riposo, oppure decidere di toglierci i calzari, che con acqua sotto i 15° C potrebbe non essere la scelta migliore.

A prescindere dalla situazione in cui ci troviamo, è fondamentale sapere che i crampi sono un segnale di sofferenza del fisico e che impone, se non proprio di sospendere l’attività, quantomeno di ridurre drasticamente l’intensità dello sforzo fisico e quindi le quote di esercizio. Una volta a casa basterà qualche ora per recuperare completamente da quello che è comunque un vero e proprio shock (reversibile) per le fibre muscolari, ma sarà anche opportuno rivedere qualcosa in merito ale nostre abitudini durante la pescata.

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